技术

技术

使用国家水信息系统

教授 马修·Deady 教授 of Physics, Director of the Physics Program, Bard College

The United States Geological Survey (USGS) measures current stream conditions 和 maintains historic stream flow records for sites all over the country. These data sets can help dam owners 下st和 seasonal 和 annual variability in their site’s flow. This guide is intended to walk you through retrieving historic water flow data. In this example, data is retrieved that is relevant to the williamhil娱乐平台.

一步一步的教程网站:
http://help.waterdata.usgs.gov/tutorials/surface-water-data/how-do-i-access-historical-streamflow-data

美国地质勘探局国家主页的水数据:
http://waterdata.usgs.gov/nwis/

步骤1:   从美国地质调查局网站开始: http://waterdata.usgs.gov/nwis/

步骤2: Under “Frequent Searches by Data Category”, choose  地表水

步骤3: 选择 每日数据 button.  这将指引您: 美国地质勘探局的全国地表水每日数据

步骤4: On this page, you can narrow down the types of sites you want to look at.  选择 any of these options that are activated by the 提交 按钮:  

  • 网站定位:
    • 状态:将出现一个选择列表
    • Hydrologic Region: a selection list will appear
    • 纬度/经度:将出现一个填写框
  • 网站标识符:  
    • If you know the site name, or USGS number, then a fill-in box will appear
  • 网站属性:
    • Site type:  A list of water body types (Ocean, Lake, Stream, …) will appear
    • Drainage area:  Boxes to fill in max or min drainage areas will appear
  • 数据属性:
    • Number of Observations:  A box to choose the min number of measurements

做任何你想做的选择,然后 提交 button.

在这个例子中,选择: 网站定位:州/领地 网站属性:站点类型

步骤5: 选择网站 which meet all of the following criteria:  

我从前两个菜单中选择了

  • 国家/地区:纽约
  • 网站类型:流

然后是一长串的 可用参数 提出了. The USGS measures a wide variety of flow 和 water data for many (but not all) bodies of water, so this website is much richer than the simple use we are putting it to.  它们分为以下几类:

  • 水位、流量参数
  • 水质参数
  • 气象参数
  • 物理性质参数
  • 其他参数
  • DCP /计性能参数

If you know for certain what type of data you are looking for, select those boxes.  Only sites that have the specific type of data you requested will show up on the presented list.

For this example, the only selected categories are 流速及流水量,发生/ s,水位、流量参数 让搜索尽可能地一般化.

现在可以选择输出格式.

显示所选地点的摘要:(地图,表格,列表,…)

For aid in sorting, I selected to group them by County. This can be left blank to get all possible sites

Retrieve USGS Surface-Water 每日数据 for Selected Sites

检索数据:
I was not sure what time frame data was taken, so I left this blank.

输出选项:
I was not sure what format data would be in, so I left this blank.

然后我点击 提交 button.

步骤6: 选择网站

What came back was a list of all 622 sites in New York State, grouped by county. We identified the ones that were of interest 和 took note of their USGS numbers:

  • 锯杀,在红钩,纽约USGS#: 01364800
  • Wappinger’s Creek, at Wappinger’s Falls, NY USGS#:  01372500
  • Wappinger’s Creek, at Clinton Corners, NY USGS#:  01372200
  • Crum Elbow Creek, at Hyde Park, NY USGS#:  01372040
  • Roeliff 1月sen Kill at Linlithgo, NY USGS#:  01362182

Now for one or a combination of streams, I will be able to find data on them. On the table, the USGS Site Number is a clickable link.

第七步: 流中的数据

Once I clicked on the 看到杀 link, I found these parameters:

本网站可用数据(下拉菜单):

  • Location map: (this gage was at a dam site near Linden Avenue)
  • Time series of:  Daily data, Daily statistics, Monthly statistics, 一年ly statistics
  • 每年的高峰河流流量数据

Period of Record:  1959-10-01 to 1965-12-31 (10月ober, 1959 to 12月ember, 1965)
Note:  Some days in this period might not have data.

The clickable link Summary of all available data for this site yields:

描述:

Latitude 42°00’14”,   Longitude 73°52’48”   NAD83

Dutchess County, New York, Hydrologic Unit 02020006

排水面积:20.9平方公里

gage的基准:172.NGVD29上空67英尺.

对于这个流和站点,这告诉:

  • 计纬度 & Longitude, based on the 1983 North American Datum st和ard
  • 量规描述位置
  • Relevant area upstream from the gage that drains into the stream
  • Gage altitude, based on the 1929 National Geodetic Vertical Datum St和ard

You can now choose the output data format 和 the range of the record.

I chose a Graph with Statistics, for the full time given.
我得到了这张图表和这些数据:

Daily discharge, cubic feet per second — statistics for 12月 31 based on 6 years of record 更多的
最小值
(1964)
25th
百分位
中位数 的意思是 75th
百分位
马克斯
(1966)
4.40 5.2 7.6 8.7 12 17.0

The blue plot of daily flow rates shows that there is considerable variation in the flow rate during any year, 春天流量大, 秋天流量小.

但每年也有变化.  The yellow plot indicates a “Daily mean discharge”.  这是, over the span of time that data were taken (roughly 5 years in this case), 一年中的每一天, 对每年的各种流量进行了平均.

 

 

So, for instance, here are the data for 1月uary 1 in each year, taken from a table of the data.  The yellow point plotted for 1月uary 1 is a flow of 5.68发生/ s.

Plotting that same daily mean for each year makes it easier to see the long-term variation.  For instance, 1961 was a wet year 和 1965 a dry year.

Plotting or tabulating data for nearby streams will allow a comparison, to find comparable streams to base flow estimates on.

1月1日平均流量
一年 放电
1960
1961 10.0
1962 7.7
1963 5.8
1964 4.2
1965 4.7
平均 5.68

Then I went back 和 chose Monthly Statistics, 和 got this table of flow rates:

Monthly 的意思是 放电 in ft3/s (Calculation Period: 1959-10-01 -> 1965-12-31)
1月 2月 3月 4月 五月 小君 7月 8月 9月 10月 11月 12月
1959 10.4 28.9
1960 24.5 16.8 12.9 11.5 23.1 14.5 14.3 9.81
1961 10.2 51.4 78.0 55.5 46.5 53.4 15.4 9.13 7.21 5.91 8.78 8.11
1962 29.2 15.2 70.1 63.6 21.5 8.59 4.35 3.98 4.49 4.41 4.91 9.47
1963 11.6 14.1 95.2 39.0 19.8 12.8 8.57 6.27 5.46 4.80 8.45 11.4
1964 30.7 15.0 77.5 41.8 19.2 8.62 3.49 2.62 4.08 3.51 3.09 5.55
1965 3.00 15.3 14.9 13.3 7.04 4.06 1.69 3.04 4.77 6.26 6.43 12.0
的意思是
每月
放电
17 22 67 43 23 17 7.7 6.1 8.2 7.1 11 9.4

From this, I was able to calculate relevant data for each full year of data:

流量(Q / ft3/s)每年的统计数据
一年 每年平均 最高月 月最低
1961 30.3 78年3月(.0) 9月(7.21)
1962 20.3 70年3月(.1) 8月(3.98)
1963 19.4 95年3月(.0) 9月(5.46)
1964 19.0 77年3月(.5) 8月(2.62)
1965 6.54 2月(15.3) 7月(1.69)

 

每年流量(Q单位为m3/s)统计
一年 每年平均 最高月 月最低
1961 0.86 3月(2.21) 9月(0.204)
1962 0.57 3月(1.99) 8月(0.113)
1963 0.55 3月(2.69) 9月(0.155)
1964 0.54 3月(2.19) 8月(0.074)
1965 0.19 2月(0.43) 7月(0.048)

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