CDG Model – Legal Considerations

Jan Borchert, Current Hydro and Dana Hall, Esq.

When we talk about legal considerations, 首先想到的是安装和运营水利工程所需的适当的williamhil娱乐平台和工程许可证. 但是潜在的CDG宿主还需要考虑其他几件事:CDG注册, CDG监督和商业惯例,甚至学习基本的CDG订阅合同条款.

Permitting and Interconnection

批准水力发电设施是联邦政府的要求, State and municipal law and regulations. 《williamhil娱乐平台》和其他法律赋予联邦能源管理委员会(FERC)监管非联邦水电项目建设和运营的管辖权.[1] 纽约州williamhil娱乐平台保护部(NYSDEC)水资源部负责管理水质并发放第401条水质认证[2] 并根据《williamhil娱乐平台》批准雨水排放.

CDG主机还必须与公用事业公司签署互连协议,并在许多情况下负责系统升级的费用, including new wires where necessary. 该过程涉及安全可靠地将发电系统连接到电网所必需的技术和程序要求. In New York, 这些要求涉及国家技术标准——包括IEEE 1547和UL 1741标准——以及由NYPSC采用的互连规则和程序.

Have a look at our permitting section 有关水电工程的许可要求的更多信息.

CDG Registration

CDG hosts are required to submit a Distributed Energy Resource Supplier Registration Form which must be supplemented with the following material:

  • Copy and proof of acceptance of your 在纽约州的国务院注册和你的证书的复印件 assumed name (if applicable);
  • Sample sales agreements, including customer 披露声明,以及每个客户类别的样本账单 CDG或现场大众市场产品或服务的材料类别 will be offered;
  • Copies of information and promotional materials 用于每一种产品的大规模营销目的;
  • A list of entities, including contractors and 分包商,即代表贵公司市场;
  • The NYS DPS Office of Consumer Services Service Provider Form   

CDG Oversight and Business Practices

All CDG hosts must comply with New York law, 消费者保护要求和NYPSC监管规则在案例15-M-0180中定义.[3] NYPSC已经建立了对CDG主机的适当营销和合同的监督和指导. CDG的东道国必须了解并遵循这一指导方针.

Essential CDG Subscription Contract Terms

At this point we’ve talked about how to structure your CDG,但实际涉及的法律条款和条件却不太清楚. 约束订阅者加入CDG的法律条款和条件由CDG主机负责. As with any business contract, 有关各方在签订CDG认购协议前应获得法律顾问的指导. CDG订购合同条款可分为两类——项目特定条款,对每个订户都是独特的, 以及对所有加入CDG的用户一致的标准条款. 下面是一些应该包括在内的基本术语.[4]

Project specific provisions: 每一份订阅合同将有特定于订阅者签署的条款,一般包括:

  • Subscriber contact information and address
  • Subscription rate (price per kWh) for volumetric credits,
  • Annual escalation rate for per kWh price (if used)
  • Production start date
  • Estimated annual electricity output to be credited
  • Utility account number and distribution utility name
  • NYISO zone

Standard provisions:  所有认购合同将有标准的条款和条件, which may include provisions regarding:

  • Cancellation terms and cancellation fees (if desired)
  • Term (the duration of the agreement)
  • Early Termination (allowing a subscriber to terminate their participation)
  • 支付(提供明确的指示如何订户 are to pay)
  • Subscriber Rights and Obligations (including what happens if the subscriber moves)
  • Host Rights and Obligations
  • Assignment, Insurance and Force Majeure
  • Default, Remedies and Indemnification
  • Limitation of Liability and Warranty Disclaimer
  • Dispute Resolution

有些条款和条件可能对主机更有保护作用,但对订阅者的吸引力较小, 例如要求订阅者在移动出实用领域时找到一个替代, 或收取的终止或取消费用. CDG的主机将需要权衡他们对商业风险的担忧与获取订户的灵活性和方便性, 同时要认真遵守节目的规章制度. In all subscriber contracts, CDG主机必须咨询有经验的律师,后者可以帮助他们定制最符合他们需求的订户协议. (更多建议见下文的经验教训-社区太阳能法律框架.) 

Next Steps

可能没有太多的水力发电CDG项目, but there are enough solar CDG projects to learn from. We’ve complied a list of lessons to be learned from other CDG projects 在营销、法律框架和模型结构方面.

Or download our full Microhydro Community DG report.

[1] Federal Power Act, 16 U.S.C. §§ 791 to 823d. The FPA 监督水电许可、管理和安全,以及电力 transmission and wholesale sales rates and services.

[2] 33 U.S.C. § 1251 et seq.

[3] NYPSC October 19, 2017年《williamhil娱乐平台》(Case 15-M-0180)和《williamhil娱乐平台》.

[4] 这里的非详尽列表适用于一个典型的CDG,即用户加入并每月支付积分. The Subscriber as Investor, CSH和上面讨论的其他模式将需要不同的业务和法律考虑.