Emily White, Research Associate, Center for the Study of Land, Air, and Water, Bard College
Despite the benefits of hydropower as a renewable source of energy, the use of dams is controversial. 对williamhil娱乐平台的不利影响，特别是对大型水电系统的不利影响，令人关切. 然而，设计成生态可持续的系统的潜力是存在的. 利用新技术的更小的、去中心化的河流径流系统(e.g.例如，鱼类友好型涡轮机)在优先位置的可能性最大. The modification or removal of existing dams in certain locations can also result in ecological improvements (Maza, 2016).
Given the complexity of issues surrounding hydropower and the need for a system approach that considers the unique aspects of each dam, 重要的是向涉众呈现尽可能完整的画面. 需要教育资源来告知社区和决策者并使他们参与进来. The topic of microhydropower also lends itself to problem-based learning (with the need to weigh pros and cons while considering multiple viewpoints) in introductory environmental science courses at the undergraduate and high school level. 此外，许多相关的概念(e.g., renewable vs. 不可再生能源, 势能和动能, turbines, water pressure and force) can be incorporated into K-12 science outreach activities for use with school and community groups.
处于大学入门水平, coverage of hydropower is typically associated with a discussion of the different types of renewable energy sources with a brief discussion of the benefits and problems. For example, the 美联社williamhil娱乐平台科学 curriculum includes one unit (out of nine total units) on “Energy Resources and Consumption” that addresses “renewable and nonrenewable sources of energy, where they’re used, 以及他们对williamhil娱乐平台的影响(大学理事会), 2021). williamhil娱乐平台设计了一个模块，为学生介绍可再生能源, 基于地图的工具，探索当地能源和水电的可行性, 大坝拆除研究综述, and preliminary steps for evaluating an existing dam as a potential candidate for a microhydropower installation. This module guides students through a series of activities leading up to a final open-ended exploration of the two small dams on Bard College’s campus. 学生的任务是识别和评估各种生态williamhil娱乐平台, social, and economic factors that should be considered to assess the possible options for these dams (i.e.，拆除大坝，williamhil娱乐，或不采取行动). 案例研究可以进行修改以适应其他大坝, 尽管其中的一些资源仅限于纽约州的站点. 该模块包含了包括短视频在内的各种材料, 来自大众媒体和科学期刊的文章, online databases, 以及为巴德学院的微型水电项目开发的工具.
下面提供了包含一些选定资源的模块活动列表. 完整的细节可在共享的谷歌文档(Microhydro教学模块). Further readings have been provided for advanced students to consider the additional complexity associated with the topics covered in some of the module’s activities. 还提供了有关的额外资源. Archived copies of all materials (including pdfs of websites) are available in a shared Google Drive folder (Microhydro Teaching). 本模块提供了网络资源和存档材料的直接链接. Those planning to use these materials with students and/or community members and other stakeholders are encouraged to make modifications as needed. For examples, in some cases the activities can be completed independently while others may require a demonstration of how to navigate the online resources, for example. Use of the linked (and archived) materials should be properly attributed to the original source.
Learn the basics of hydropower and explore renewable energy potential to investigate the best locations for hydropower in the United States.
Examine the positive and negative aspects of dams by using map-based databases to find and investigate dams and dam removal projects.
Consider the advantages and disadvantages of microhydropower and learn how to estimate the power output at a potential microhydropower site.
确定生态, social, and economic factors that should be considered to assess the options for existing dams then synthesize and integrate the available information to make a preliminary recommendation.
配合上述教学模块, we have compiled four activities that can be used in classrooms and public forums to raise awareness about microhydropower while also providing opportunities for STEM (Science, Technology, Engineering, and Math) outreach. There are a number of excellent lesson plans focusing on renewable energy and hydropower for K-12 students, 包括几个完整开发的课程单元. These include the American Association for the Advancement of Science ScienceNetLinks “Energy for You” lesson, 科罗拉多大学博尔德分校的“可再生能源:水”教学工程单元, 以及水基金会 & 能源教育《williamhil娱乐平台》课程. The selected activities include a review of prior knowledge about energy and non-renewable versus renewable sources, a hands-on activity where water is dropped from different heights to demonstrate the conversion of potential energy to kinetic energy, an experiment to measure the rotational rate of a student designed and constructed model waterwheel, and an exploration of how water can be used to create electricity using a simple model of a dam built out a two-liter soda bottle.
University of Colorado Boulder TeachEngineering “Renewable Energy: Water” Unit lessons and activities (http://www.teachengineering.org/curricularunits/view/cub-energy-renewable-water-unit)
Foundation for Water & 能源教育课程“流动的水是如何成为能源的”?” activities (http://fwee.org/education/the-nature-of-water-power/curriculum-units/)
下面提供了包含的活动列表(如果有视频的话). 完整的细节可在共享的谷歌文档(Microhydro外联活动). Archived copies of all materials (including pdfs of websites) are available in a shared Google Drive folder (Microhydro Teaching). 本模块提供了网络资源和存档材料的直接链接. Those planning to use these materials are encouraged to make modifications as needed for the intended audience. 获取其他内容和上下文, 包括与国家和/或国家科学标准一致的信息, teachers should consult the complete curricular materials provided by the creators of these activities. Use of the linked (and archived) materials should be properly attributed to these original sources.
k - 12推广活动:
College Board. (2021). 美联社williamhil娱乐平台科学. http://apstudents.collegeboard.org/courses/ap-environmental-science. 2021年4月4日.
Maza, C. (2016, May 13). 水电的下一步行动:成为一种争议较少的可再生能源. 基督教科学箴言报. http://www.csmonitor.com/Environment/Energy/2016/0513/Hydropower-s-next-act-becoming-a-less-controversial-renewable